Tilletia species on winter wheat grain

  • O. Shevchuk Institute of Plant Protection NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska str., Kyiv, Ukraine
  • T. Kyslykh Institute of Plant Protection NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska str., Kyiv, Ukraine
  • L. Holosna Institute of Plant Protection NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska str., Kyiv, Ukraine
  • O. Afanasieva Institute of Plant Protection NAAS, 33, Vasylkivska str., Kyiv, Ukraine
Keywords: common bunt, dwarf bunt, species composition, distribution, grain contamination


Goal. To determine the species composition of the complex of pathogens of bunt diseases of the genus Tilletia on winter wheat grain.

Methods. The research was conducted during 2017—2020. 315 samples of winter wheat grain from different soil and climatic zones were analyzed. Seed contamination was determined by washing the grains and centrifuging the spore suspension, followed by counting their number in the Goryaev chamber. Identification of the pathogen was performed in the laboratory by microscopic examination, taking into account the morphological features of teliospores.

Results. In 2017 and 2018, the presence of spores of fungi of the genus Tilletia was detected in 23.5 and 28.6% of the analyzed wheat grain samples, respectively. The number of spores per grain varied between 11—388.9 and 2.8—214.8 and averaged 72.5 and 33.7 correspondingly. The largest number of infected samples was observed in 2019 — 47.4%. In the same period, the highest level of seed contamination was observed — up to 1089 spores per grain, in average — 124.6 spores per grain. The lowest level of grain contamination was detected in 2020 — 6.3% of samples with an average of 3.7 spores per grain. Mostly spores of bunt pathogens were found in grain samples from Ternopil, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Lviv, Vinnytsia regions. The following species have been identified: Tilletia caries, T. controversa, T. laevis. Pathogen T. caries was detected annually. It dominated in 2020 and ranked second in detection rate in 2017—2019. T. controversa was found on grain in 2017—2019 and prevailed among other species. Its part in the complex of pathogens varied from 77.1 to 87.5%. In 2018, T. laevis was also detected.

Conclusions. In most samples, spores of fungi of the genus Tilletia were not detected. On average, according to the years of research, grain contamination by bunt fungi were detected in 6.3—47.4% of samples with an average spore load of 3.7—124.6 of grain. The highest number of infected samples and the level of contamination were observed in 2019, the lowest — in 2020. The complex of pathogens is represented by three species: T. caries, T. laevis, T. controversa. T. controversa dominated in 2017—2019 and T. caries — in 2020. T. laevis occurred sporadically.


Gaudet D.A., Menzies J. (2012) Common bunt of wheat: an old foe remains a current threat. Disease Resistance in Wheat. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 220–235.

Peresypkin V.F. (1989) Bolezni sel'skohozjajstvennyh kul'tur. Tom 1. Bolezni zernovyh i zernobobovyh kul'tur [Diseases of agricultural crops. Volume 1. Diseases of cereals and legumes]. Kiev: Urozhaj. 216 с. [in Russian].

Retman S.V., Kyslykh T.M., Shevchuk O.V. (2014) Karlykova sazhka pshenytsi ozymoi [Dwarf smut of winter wheat]. Karantyn i zakhyst roslyn [Quarantine and plant protection]. 2. 1-3. [in Ukrainian].

Retman S., Kozub N., Kyslykh T. et al (2014). Tilletia controversa JG Kühn on winter wheat in Ukraine. Healthy plants - healthy people. 11th Conference of the EuropeanFoundation for Plant Pathology. 8–13 September 2014, Kraków, Poland. 176

Bakhmut O.O., Brukhal F.I., Baranets L. et al (2020) Prohnoz fitosanitarnoho stanu ahrotsenoziv Ukrainy ta rekomendatsii shchodo zakhystu roslyn u 2020 r. [Forecast of phytosanitary condition of agrocenoses of Ukraine and recommendations on plant protection in 2020] Кyiv. 298. [in Ukrainian].

Wilcoxson R.D., Saari E.E. (1996) Bunt and Smut Diseases of Wheat: Concepts and Methods of Disease Management. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT, 1996. 66.

Župunski V., Jevtić R., Ignjatović-Micić D. et al. (2012) Incidence of Tilletia species in non-processed seed of Triticum aestivum in Vojvodina, Serbia. Seed Sci. & Technol. 40 (2). 320-332. DOI: 10.15258/sst.2012.40.3.04

Mobasser S., Jazayeri M., Khazaei F., Sadeghi L. (2012) Wheat seed contamination with seed-borne diseases in cold climatic zone of Iran. International Journal of Plant Production. 6. 337-352.

Dumalasová V., Bartoš P. (2016) Reaction of wheat to common bunt and dwarf bunt and reaction of triticale to dwarf bunt. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 52. 108-113. DOI: 10.17221/48/2016-CJGPB

Shutko A.P. (2018) Biodiversity of Plant Pathogens in the Context of International Economic Issue: Case Study of Tilletia Controversa Kuehn. Advances in Engineering Research. 151. 937-940. DOI: 10.2991/agrosmart-18.2018.176

Aboukhaddour R., Fetch T., McCallum B.D. et al. (2020) Wheat diseases on the prairies: A Canadian story. Plant Pathol. 69. 418–432. DOI: 10.1111/ppa.13147

CABI/EPPO. (2012) Tilletia controversa. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 297 (Edition 4). URL: https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/53924#toDistributionMaps

Lukashina S. G., Ostapenko N. N., Kalinina, A. A. (2011) Fitosanitarnoe sostojanie semjan ozimyh kolosovyh kul'tur v Krasnodarskom krae [Phytosanitary condition of the seeds of winter cereals crops in the Krasnodar region]. Zashhita i karantin rastenij [Plant protection and quarantine]. 11. 22-23. [in Russian].

Kojshybaev M. (2018) Bolezni pshenicy [Wheat diseases]. Ankara: Prodovol'stvennaja i sel'skohozjajstvennaja organizacija OON (FAO). 394. [in Russian].

Pshenytsia. Tekhnichni umovy. DSTU 3768:2019.(2019) [Chynnyi vid 2019-06-10] [Wheat. Specifications. DSTU 3768:2019]. [Effective from 2019-06-10]. Kyiv: DP "Ukr NDNC", 2019. 19 p. [in Ukrainian].

Goates B.J., Peterson G.L., Bowden R.L., Maddux L.D. (2011) Analysis of induction and establishment of dwarf bunt of wheat under marginal climatic conditions. Plant Disease. 95 (4). 478-484. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-10-10-0732

Matanguihan J.B., Murphy K.M., Jones S.S. (2011) Control of Common Bunt in Organic Wheat. In Plant Disease. 95 (2), 92–103. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0620

Halasz A. (2011) National survey of the economically important Tilletia species (T. controversa, T. caries, T. foetida) on winter wheat in Hungary (2007–2009). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 46. 27-37. DOI: 10.1556/APhyt.46.2011.1.4

Koch E., Wächter R., Spiess H. (2018) Characterization of resistance of wheat varieties and breeding lines against common bunt (Tilletia tritici) and dwarf bunt (T. controversa). Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 42. 32. 10.17221/6227-CJGPB

Rashchenko L.M. (2002) Zbudnyky tverdoi sazhky. Dynamika rozpovsiudzhenosti ta vydovyi sklad [Pathogens of common bunt. Dynamics of distribution and species composition]. Zakhyst roslyn [Plant protection]. 5. 8-9. [in Ukrainian].

Dubinina L.O., Baranovska V.L. (2002) Vydovyi sklad zbudnykiv tverdoi sazhky pshenytsi ta stiikist. [Species composition of causative agents of common bunt of wheat and resistance.]. Ahrarnyi visnyk Prychornomoria [Agrarian Bulletin of the Black Sea Coast.]. 2002, 18, 176-182. [in Ukrainian].

Nasinnia silskohospodarskykh kultur. Metody vyznachennia yakosti. DSTU 4138-2002. (2003) [Chynnyi vid 2004-01-01] [Seeds of agricultural crops. Methods for determining quality. DSTU 4138-2002]. [Effective from 2004-01-01]. Kyiv: Derzhspozhyvstandart Ukrainy. 170. [in Ukrainian]

Zerova M.Ia., Morochkovskyi S.F., Radziievskyi H.H., Smitska M.F. (1971) Vyznachnyk hrybiv Ukrainy. T. IV. [Key to fungi of Uktaine] Kyiv: Naukova dumka.316 s. [in Ukrainian].

Gavrilov A.A., Repuhova I.V., Shutko A.P. (2006) Karlikovaja golovnja ozimoj pshenicy i mery bor'by s nej [Winter wheat dwarf bunt and control measures]. Stavropol': AGRUS. 72. [in Russian].

How to Cite
Shevchuk, O., Kyslykh, T., Holosna, L., & Afanasieva, O. (2020). Tilletia species on winter wheat grain. Quarantine and Plant Protection, (10-12), 3-7. https://doi.org/10.36495/2312-0614.2020.10-12.3-7