Broompare in sunflower crops and control methods
Goal. The study of the biological characteristics and developing methods for effective control of Broomrape in sunflower crops.
Methods. The comprehensive study included the route survey of crops in the five regions of the country where traditionally the acreage of sunflower is the largest part in the structure of arable land. Was conducted sampling of the soil in the fields to assess the level of contamination by seeds of Broomrape. Repeated the test 4. Surveys and monitoring of the crops was carried out in accordance with the requirements methods of testing and use of pesticides.
Results. Studies show that the presence of 2—7 of Broomrape stalks per 1 m2 of sunflower crops leading to reduced yields of seed cultures by 10—15%. In the presence of 35—40 pieces/m2 of stalks of the parasite reduction reaches 70—85% of the possible yields of crops. Sample survey of crops of sunflower and soil samples from the arable layer (0—30 cm) during the study years (Zaporizhzhia, Dnipropetrovsk, Odesa, etc.) and their analysis for the presence of seeds of Broomrape showed a high level of contamination. In the upper part of the topsoil (0—10 cm) found 124—1160 seeds/m2 seed of the parasite. However, only a 0.012—0.22% of the total quantity present in the soil of seeds of the parasite germinate in the spring as a result of interaction with the roots of the plant opinion. Easier to just hit the Broomrape seedling primary roots of sunflower plants in the juvenile and amatory stages of organogenesis (May — June).
Conclusions. The practice of using resistant against the respective races of Broomrape sunflower hybrids ensures to provide only a temporary and partial positive results. Immune to defeat different races of Broomrape sunflower hybrids there, and to existing sustainable hybrids parasite quickly forms a new more aggressive population. The most effective nowadays are preventive measures which make it possible to obtain high yields of sunflower and not to complicate the phytosanitary situation on arable lands in the future.
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