How to get rid of Gallant Soldier?
Goal. The goal of the research was to develop effective Galinsoga parviflora control techniques in crops of field and vegetable crops, taking into account its biological and environmental features.
Methods. Studies were perform 2010—2018 in industrial crops of 6 farms of the Steppe- and Forest-Steppe zones of Ukraine on ordinary black soil. Establishment of experiments, observations and counts in them carried out according to generally accepted methods.
Results. The germination of G. parviflora seeds began when the soil was heated to 5°C. The number of seedlings increased until the end of May, reaching 56—149 pcs/m2, in the summer period it did not exceed 4.7—5.8 pcs/m2, and at the end of summer and early autumn it increased again to 96—322 pcs/m2, much of which had a dwarf form. The pre-sowing, post-sowing treatment and loosening of the soil or post-emergence herbicides during the period of planting, the second one — the main processing and mulching of the soil in the sowing were decisive in the control system of the first wave of the G. parviflora seedlings. Early autumn plowing (in August) with preliminary peeling, spring harrowing and leveling of the ЛК-2 soil reduced the potential debris by 58—63%, and the actual one by 1.1—1.6 times. Minimalization of the main tillage led to an increase in debris in crops twice. The efficiency of pre-emergence harrowing of crops in cloudy weather and with good soil moisture did not exceed 72%, and in warm sunny it was 93%. On irrigated lands and heavy soils, two loosening of the soil in between rows reduced the contamination of crops in comparison with the variant without loosening in 1.3—1.4, three — in 1.7—1.9, four–five — in 3.5—4.2 times. When mulching between crops 4—5 cm with a layer of straw at a height of cultivated plants of 8—15 cm, all the weeds died completely, 96% sawdust, 92% with agrofiber. In the years with cold spring, pre-emergence herbicides controlled 72—76%, and in warm years, 89—98% weeds. Post-harvest 3—4 spraying of crops of beets with Goltix herbicides (1.5—2.0 kg/ha) + Belvedere Forte (0.7—1.0 l/ha) starting from the seed of the cotyledon leaves at the weeds and every 7—14 days or 2 sprays in 10—15 days Betanal Progres (1.0—3.0 l/ha) + Caribou (0.03 kg/ ha) ensured their complete suppression. In onion crops, 90—95% of weeds were controlled by Galigan (0.75 l/ ha), carrots and green crops — Gezagard (2.5 l/ha), tomatoes and potatoes — Zenkor (0.5 l/ ha), corn sugar — Chaser-P (2.5 l/ ha) or Secateurs (0.15 kg/ha). Tape application of herbicides in combination with inter-row loosening ensured the destruction of 97—99% of weeds while reducing the costs of herbicides by 68—73%.
Conclusions. The most effective control of G. parviflora is achieved by conducting double-peeling, early plowing, autumn cultivation, spring harrowing, leveling the soil and 3—4 times loosening the inter-row spacing of crops. The high control effect of G. parviflora in crops of beets is given by the use of post-harvest herbicides Holtix + Belvedere Forte, Betanal Progres + Caribou, onions — Galigan, carrots and green crops — Gezagard, tomatoes and potatoes — Zencore, sugar corn — Chaser-P or Secateurs. The total death of G. parviflora and other weeds is ensured by mulching of crops 4—5 cm with a layer of straw or sawdust.
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